Low Repetitive Force Injuries. Unfortunately, high force injuries described above are not the most common for overexertion or strain injuries.
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In these situations, the injury is the result of accumulated trauma from either repeated application of low force or the application of a sustained force for a long duration. As illustrated in figure 2 below, an applied force that is below the tissue tolerance is performed repetitively over time and slowly reduces the tissue's tolerance. Eventually, the margin of safety approaches zero and an injury occurs. Obviously, the higher the force application, the quicker the fatigue.
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This is an example of the classic repetitive motion type injury. Occupational examples include: repetitive hand grinding, pulling cables, unloading a pallet of boxes, or any work on an assembly line. A sports-related example would be a baseball pitcher. Major League Baseball uses the pitch count rule as a way to minimize fatigue and reduce the potential risk of injury to the pitcher that is, the red tissue tolerance line comes close to the maximum pitch count line. This is the main reason why you see pitchers being removed from the game in later innings.
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Figure 2: Injury caused by a repetitive force task graph reproduced from S. Sustained Force Injuries. Another way to produce an injury is to sustain the force constantly over a period of time. As illustrated in figure 3 below, a constant force below the tissue tolerance is maintained, and over time the muscles slowly become tired due to lack of blood flow and oxygen, reducing the tissue's tolerance.
Again, the margin of safety approaches zero and the injury occurs. Examples of this type of injury are from prolonged static postures, such as sitting or kneeling too long, working with your arms in the overhead, or prolonged back bending.
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The image shows an example of an employee who is working in a bend-over posture as part of his routine job tasks. Figure 3: Injury caused by a sustained force task graph reproduced from S. Injuries from Cumulative Trauma Over Years. The human body has an amazing ability to heal itself when given the right amount of rest and recovery.
When the amount of rest and recovery is not sufficient, the body cannot heal or repair itself, and it slowly starts to break down. This occurs with the natural aging process, and our tissue tolerances are less compared to when we were younger.
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Eventually, the tissue tolerance levels decrease to a level of the applied load, making the margin of safety zero, resulting in an injury. This is common with employees who have spent their whole career exposed to the same risk factor i. Figure 4: Injury caused by cumulative trauma over time. Understanding how the body gets injured allows us to develop effective injury prevention strategies. Avoidance of stress on the body is undesirable; we need a certain amount of stress to maintain a healthy body.
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The objective of injury prevention strategies is to find the right amount of balance between the applied force stress on the body , rest and recovery, tissue adaptation and minimizing the accumulation of microtrauma as illustrated in figure 5, also known as the training effect. Figure 5: Optimal amount of stress and recovery to minimize injury graph reproduced from S.
Harrison is available to assist families and businesses to empower them to make the right decisions. She received her B. Her practice focuses on complex litigation matters, including products liability, securities litigation and regulation, and general commercial disputes. She received a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Southern Mississippi, where she graduated with highest honors. While at Tulane, Ms.
Meeks served as the senior managing editor of the Tulane Law Review and as a senior fellow for the legal analysis program. PATRICK is a partner in the New Orleans law firm of Patrick Miller LLC, where he practices in the areas of maritime law, insurance litigation and regulation, commercial litigation, administrative law, workers' compensation defense, and intellectual property litigation.
Patrick earned his B. She is a certified case manager with over 13 years of experience in operations. Roy received her B. She has over 30 years of experience in health-related fields, including credentials and experience in nursing, case management, rehabilitation, Medicare set-aside preparation, life care planning and health care benefits. Steffy's experience includes working with catastrophic and complex cases, determining future care needs, and working with the legal system for both defense and plaintiff.
She earned her associate's degree in nursing, with honors, from John C. Calhoun, Jr. College; her B. Stern concentrates his practice on maritime and general casualty defense with emphasis on risk management.
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He has lectured on criminal law, speaking at continuing legal education seminars on criminal sentencing in Louisiana, the criminal trial in Louisiana from start to finish, and young lawyers preparing for their first civil trial. Stern has handled multiple criminal cases receiving extensive media coverage, including second-degree murder and police corruption cases.