However all did not go smoothly in Australia at the beginning of the 19th century. On 4 March they captured a convict station at Parramatta. The next day they fought a 'battle' with government soldiers. As a result of the rebellion quickly collapsed and the ringleaders were hanged. A second rebellion, the rum rebellion occurred in William Bligh, the famous captain of the Bounty, was made governor in At that time rum was used as currency in Australia.
Bligh forbade this. He was held prisoner for over a year until he finally agreed to leave Australia. However soon after he set sail Bligh decided to return. In the British government decided to replace Bligh and in he was succeeded by Colonel Macquarie. In Merino sheep were brought to Australia. The number of sheep in Australia quickly boomed. There was a huge demand for their wool in England. By there , sheep in Australia. By the figure had reached 1 million. There were 1 million sheep in Tasmania.
By there were 13 million sheep in New South Wales. In George Bass and Matthew Flinders sailed through the straits and proved that Van Diemen's land was separate from mainland Australia. The first settlers arrived in Van Diemen's Land Tasmania in Launceston was founded in Hobart was founded in and Launceston was founded in In the 19th century, there was a whaling industry in Bass Strait. There were also seal hunters until the s. An important shipbuilding industry also grew up in Hobart in the midth century.
In Tasmania was separated from Australia for administrative purposes. Transportation to Tasmania ended in In the s tin was discovered in Tasmania and a new industry grew up. In the s copper mining in Tasmania boomed. The population of Tasmania grew rapidly.
Die Geschichte Australiens
From only about 4, in it grew to 57, in and , in The University of Tasmania was founded in In there may have been about 8, people in Tasmania. Europeans killed many especially during the 'Black War' of the s. Others died of diseases introduced by Europeans. The 'warfare' between Europeans and indigenous people began in with the 'battle' of Risdon Cove. About indigenous people stumbled onto a European camp while hunting kangaroo and soldiers fired at them.
Many more indigenous Tasmanians were killed in the ensuing years. The Governor of Tasmania from to was George Arthur.
In the years to , he declared martial law hoping to end the warfare between Europeans and indigenous people. In he ordered all able-bodied white men to form a line across Tasmania and sweep across it forcing all the remaining indigenous people onto the Tasman Peninsula. However, this move, known as the Black Line, failed. Eventually a preacher named George Robinson agreed to try and persuade the remaining indigenous people to go to a reservation on Flinders Island. The surviving people agreed to go there.
However, they continued to die of disease and in the few survivors were allowed back onto Tasmania. Meanwhile European settlement spread to other parts of Australia. Brisbane was founded in Western Australia was founded in The city of Perth was founded that year. In a man named John Batman decided the site of Melbourne was a good place to found a settlement.
In he made a treaty with the Indigenous Australians in which he gave them trade goods for land. However, the treaty was not recognized by the British government, which disregarded it. Nevertheless, the city of Melbourne was laid out on the land in a grid pattern. In another colony was founded at Port Adelaide, which grew into South Australia.
After thousands of new settlers arrived in Australia every year fleeing poverty in Britain. By the white population of Australia was about , By it was about , Meanwhile, explorers such as Charles Sturt and Thomas Mitchell explored the interior of Australia. In Victoria was made a separate state from New South Wales. Queensland grew from a settlement at Moreton Bay, which was founded in Queensland became independent in When the first convicts and their guards were sent to Australia they were enjoined to 'live in amity and kindness' with the Indigenous Australians.
A Short History Of Australia by Manning Clark
That, of course, did not happen. The Europeans came to drive the indigenous people off their land. Naturally, the Indigenous Australians resented this and fought back. However, there were no pitched battles between Europeans and Indigenous Australians. The indigenous people fought 'hit and run' raids and parties of Europeans went out to kill Indigenous Australians.
One of the leaders of indigenous resistance was Pemulwuy who fought the British from to However, he was eventually shot. European diseases such as smallpox, influenza, and measles to which they had no resistance also devastated the Indigenous Australians. Intermittent 'warfare' between Europeans and indigenous people continued for decades. As the Europeans took more and more of the indigenous people's hunting land for sheep tension grew and violence flared. Indigenous Australians sometimes attacked settlers and took sheep.
In retaliation Europeans sometimes massacred Indigenous Australians. One such massacre happened on 9 June when a group of 12 Europeans massacred a group of 28 indigenous men, women and children who were peacefully camped near a hut belonging to 2 convicts. Of the 12 men, 11 were brought to justice. At their first trial, all 11 men were acquitted. However, 7 were re-tried, found guilty and hung. It was rare for settlers to be prosecuted for killing Indigenous Australians. Many though not all settlers regarded indigenous people as inferior and not fully human.
By the late 19th century people of European descent vastly outnumbered Indigenous Australians. The number of Indigenous Australians had fallen drastically since the beginning of the century.
A very short history of Australia
From the end of the 19th century until the s half-caste children were taken away from their parents and in a law forbade a man of European descent to live with an Indigenous woman. Furthermore from the s Chinese people came to work in Australia. In the late 19th century all the Australian colonies restricted their immigration. Meanwhile, in the late 19th century Polynesians came to work in the sugar fields in the North. In an Immigrant Restriction Act was passed to stop Asian immigrants.
In there was a gold rush in Victoria. The result was a huge influx of new settlers into Australia. From , in the population of Australia rose to 1. In Melbourne was the largest city with a population of about , Sydney had about , people.
Meanwhile the Eureka Rebellion occurred. The government introduced licenses for gold miners. Australians , Thomas Keneally's widely acclaimed three volume history of the Australian people from origins to Vietnam, gave us a robust, vibrant and page-turning narrative that brought to life the vast range of characters who have formed our national story.
Australians: a short history brings these three volumes together and reintroduces us to the rich assortment of contradictory, inspiring and surprising characters who made a young and cocky Australia. It is the story of the original Australians and European occupation of their land through the convict era to pastoralists, bushrangers and gold seekers, working men, pioneering women, the rifts wrought by World War I, the rise of hard-nosed radicals from the Left and the Right, the social upheavals of the Great Crash and World War II, the Menzies era, the nation changing period of post-war migration and Australia's engagement with Asia.
This is a truly masterly history of Australia and its people by an author of outstanding literary skill whose own humanity permeates every page.
About the Author Thomas Keneally was born in He lives in Sydney with his wife Judy. Help Centre. My Wishlist Sign In Join. Australians A short history By: Thomas Keneally. Be the first to write a review. Add to Wishlist. In Stock. Unable to Load Delivery Dates. In , the Australian Labor Party under the idealistic leadership of Gough Whitlam was elected to power, ending the post-war domination of the Liberal and Country Party coalition.
Over the next three years, his new government ended conscription, abolished university fees, introduced free universal health care, abandoned the White Australia policy, embraced multiculturalism and introduced no-fault divorce and equal pay for women. However, by , inflation and scandal led to the Governor-General dismissing the government.
In the subsequent general election, the Labor Party suffered a major defeat and the Liberal—National Coalition ruled until Between and , the Hawke—Keating Labor governments introduced a number of economic reforms, such as deregulating the banking system and floating the Australian dollar.
- Related Articles;
- Mad Chase - Erotic Short Story for Women.
- Purpose In Prayer;
- Homo Sum - Complete.
- Kingsley Amis: Antimodels and the Audience;
- Nativa (Spanish Edition).
- The Dream Thief!
In a Coalition Government led by John Howard won the general election and was re-elected in , and The Liberal—National Coalition Government enacted several reforms, including changes in the taxation and industrial relations systems. Three years later, Rudd was challenged by Julia Gillard who was to become the first female Prime Minister of Australia. In the new Coalition government was sworn in, led by Tony Abbott.
In September Abbott was defeated in a leadership ballot by Malcolm Turnbull, who was re-elected in a general election in July Facts and planning. Australia's history.