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Boek met stofomslag, de stofomslag heeft kleine gebruiksspoortjes. Vertaling door Ciny Macrander. Size: A4 formaat. More information about this seller Contact this seller 7. Published by Edition Holz im Kinderbuchverlag About this Item: Edition Holz im Kinderbuchverlag, Condition: as new. In deutscher Sprache. Seller Inventory BN More information about this seller Contact this seller 8.

Published by Altberliner Verlag, About this Item: Altberliner Verlag, Gebundene Ausgabe. Condition: Akzeptabel. Schneller Versand. Rechnung mit MwSt. More information about this seller Contact this seller 9. Published by Verlag Mlade Leda About this Item: Verlag Mlade Leda, Condition: fine. More information about this seller Contact this seller Published by Grund, Paris About this Item: Grund, Paris, French text. Colourfully illustrated endpapers. White cloth with black titles. One corner bumped.

Colourfully illustrated DJ with white titles. Light wear along the edges. Couverture rigide. Condition: bon. RO Dessins en couleur en frontispices. Avec Jaquette. Seller Inventory RO Livre Attention! Seller Inventory WFA Item added to your basket View basket. Proceed to Basket. View basket. Continue shopping. Results 1 - 16 of Schmalkalden's illustrations, however, have a special charm, not only because they are hand-drawn and colored, not having passed through the hands of an engraver, and they often seem more authentically Asian.

No brawny, muscular figures a specialty of baroque engravers, it seems adorn his work. Nonetheless, just as parts of his text contain information from other but unnamed sources, so do his drawings reproduce the work of others. Maps and Townscapes. Examining Schmalkalden's depiction of Japan, Michel has shown that the maps of Japan and views of the Dutch settlement of Deshima are deriva-. Although he was himself a surveyor and map-maker during his Formosa service, Schmalkalden would probably not have been allowed to retain any copies of maps he drew for the Company, for they represented classified information.

He would thus have had to rely on published examples. Schmalkalden' s Batavia map is also borrowed, this time from a well-known and often copied map of published by Clemendt de Johghe, Amsterdam, Calver- straat. The famous Itinerario of Linschoten already presented a collection of drawings of people, scenes, and plants found in Asia when it appeared in The edition of Linschoten, for example, is still in the Gotha library, although that does not prove that it was there in Schmalkalden' s day, and Schmalkalden' s organization of his account resembles that of some of the travel reports in Begin ende Voortgangh.

One example of borrowing is the view of the port of Aceh, which combines a cityscape with two "typical" figures in the foreground. The engraving in the Dutch work below, Figure 1 represents the entrance to the river, with a fortification, and shows several houses, which nevertheless do not resemble Sumatran dwellings, and a castle. One of the foreground figures is a tur- baned Malay in a long coat and short sarong, possibly a trader or a Malay orang kaya.

The other is a quadruple amputee, legs encased in bamboo cylinders, with crutches tied to his arms to enable him to move about. Schmalkalden takes over this image in the Copenhagen manuscript page 19 lr; Figure 2 , but the houses are now Sumatran houses, raised above the ground, and only a single figure, the amputee, graces the foreground. In the final version Gotha Ms. His clothing a headcloth and a sarong draped over one shoulder is similar to that of the engraving, but the figure is much less leaden.

A view of the settlement, with mosque, palace and houses on stilts, appears on another page r; , , and there is a separate sketch of a Malay man r; , , which does not resemble that in the older publication. Published works were one possible source of models for the illustrations, but another was existing collections of illustrations by European artists who visited the Indies.

The collection, which belonged to the Marquis de Paulmy , is attributed to Andries Beeckman. He was in the Indies at about the same time as Schmalkalden and, in about , painted a monumental scene of the market and fort in Batavia. A second painting of the same motive, slightly different in composition, is also attributed to him. Striking is that Beeckman utilized the figures from his Album in his paintings of Batavia, where a number of them are easily identifiable.

Schmalkalden apparently also had access to some of Beeckman's works. A number of his illustrations can be traced to either the Paris collection or the paintings. Although their execution in the Gotha manuscript might leave room for doubt, some illustrations in the Copenhagen manuscript quite closely resemble those of Beeckman's Album and thus confirm the origin.

In particular, these include a Chinese trader Gotha r and , , Figure. Again, the Copenhagen version r is very close to the Album figure. Although such a "Moor" seems at first an incongruous figure for the Batavian scene, he also appears in the painting in the Rijksmuseum, although not in the foreground and without martial attributes. C64 The dancing Ambonese performing the warlike cakalele, however, was such a common motive in travel illustrations that the model for Schmalkalden may have come from many versions.

Given the prevalence of borrowings in works of the time, 65 none of this is surprising. Poses and attributes of these figures are the same, but the execution of the drawings differs somewhat, with the Copenhagen version clos- est to the original and some changes made to the Gotha version. Copenhagen's Chinese is a close copy of Beeckman's, for example, down to the color of his coat and purse.

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Such a rendition probably came from the artist himself. The final, Gotha version adds more detail to the clothing of the long-fingernailed Chinese, who like Beeckman's, 66 poses with an awkwardly held umbrella and a fan, but the shoes are not authentic, suggesting that the picture was redrawn by someone who did not recall or did not know Chinese cloth shoes. The Gotha Moor, probably an Indian or Arab trader, has even exchanged his half-slippers for sturdy shoes with black shoelaces!

The vegetable-seller of Beeckman, shown in profile with a cheroot and a basket on her head, seems cruder than the slavewoman in Gotha, where the. The Copenhagen version is an intermediate one. This figure is also in the painting attributed to Beeckmann in the Koninklijke Instituut voor de Tropen. Prominent in the foreground of both paintings is a couple, a man in European dress and a woman, probably a mestiza, with slendang and sarong the execution and the colors differ slightly in the two paintings.

Her right arm is invisible because, in the paintings, she has taken the arm of her companion. This is one of the most attractive illustrations in the entire manuscript Gotha r and , ; Figure 9. Other illustrations are of undetermined origin. In addition, a number of those in Copenhagen are not adopted in the final manuscript. One of the women, however, may have been a model for the Chinese woman in Gotha r, , , Figure In the final version, she carries an embroidery frame as well as a fan.

Not only people but also animals were part of any good traveler's tale. In fact, certain animals appear repeatedly as emblems of their landscapes. Africa had its lions and ostriches, and sometimes rhinoceroses ; for Asia the emblematic creatures were the elephant, the rhino, the crocodile and the tiger. A curiosity is the painting of a rhinoceros Gotha r and , As Werner Kraus has shown, it is actually a mirror image of Albrecht Diirer's familiar depiction of a.

Caspar Schmalkalden 's Images of Asia. Rhinoceros, Gotha 2 1 8 r. By permission. Diirer's woodcut, which erroneously shows an animal with a second horn on its back, was copied and recopied all over Europe and must have been known in Batavia. Actually depicting an Indian and not a Javanese animal, it strongly influenced later drawings of rhinos everywhere. Kraus has traced the path of this animal from Diirer to Batavia to the anonymous Chinese artist, who did not repeat Diirer's mistake, for his rhino has, correctly, only one horn.

A young one was captured and held in Batavia in , and skins, horns or heads were often brought in for bounties. Schmalkalden himself recalls seeing such a skin. Its style suggests that it is of even different origin. All this leads to the conclusion that Schmalkalden collected images from different artists or printed sources and reworked them for the final draft. Finally, some figures are probably original. In particular the Formosan native Gotha r and , ; Copenhagen r; Figure 12 seems to have been drawn by the author, possibly from life. The Javanese man with pike, kris and shield, and Javanese woman with a tea service Gotha r, r and , may also be from Schmalkalden himself.

Compared to Latin America, relatively few flora or fauna appear in the Asian section, except for spices, which of course were the most valuable products of the Indies at the time. The passionfruit, beautifully drawn and described in Copenhagen 73r carries a note that it is found in the East Indies as well as in Brazil, but it is not in the Gotha manuscript, perhaps an oversight. A small crocodile, another emblematic animal of Asia, does appear Gotha r, not reproduced in The other illustrations include maps or views of towns, harbors and fortresses.

Again, many are probably derivative.

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The Verse Captions of the Illustrations. The illustrations serve to typify certain kinds of people in the Indies and elsewhere, continuing the tradition of the "costume books". In addition,. Putting thoughts into poetry was another device well known to travel writers. Like Schmalkalden, for example, Franz Miiller 73 also captioned some of the illustrations in his two travel manuscripts with verses. Frequently books had a rhymed introduction or a dedication to the person who sponsored the publication.

Schmalkalden's ironic and sometimes irreverent fourliners serve to further typify, perhaps to stereotype, the figures illustrated. Here are some examples of verses accompanying the figures reproduced here. Schmalkalden's rather chaotic spelling and punctuation, as in the rest of the manuscript, make them difficult to decipher, and he pays no attention to modern rules of capitalization. As mentioned, the mutilated thief seems to have been a popular image, reflecting how Westerners viewed what they perceived as cruel punishment.

An Early Traveler's Compendium : Caspar Schmalkalden 's Images of Asia - Persée

Diebstahl hat mich viermal in groB ungliick gestiirtzet Dafiir mir meine hand und fuG sind abgekiirtzet Nun geh' ich auf die straB, ersuche groB und klein, Zu meiner diirfftigkeit, behiilfflich mir zu seyn. Four times thievery brought me great misfortune For it, my hands and feet were cut off Now I go out on the street and ask great and small To help me in my need. The Slavewoman or Vegetable Vendor Figure 6 :.

Wir werden zwar verkauft wie unverniinftig viehe Doch dienen wir getreu und scheuen keine muhe Den deiitschen helffen wir mit sorge rath und that So dass Batavian an Uns nicht schaden hatt. We are sold like ignorant animals. But we serve loyally and exert any effort. We help the Germans [Dutch? So that Batavia has no trouble with us. The Mestiza Figure 9 :.

Her revealing dress may reflect a judgment on her moral qualities, but the author is interested first in her mixed descent and in her marriageability. Sucht iemand mein geschlecht, der miih sich iimbzuschawen Nach einem WeiGen Mann und einer schwartzen frawen. Anyone looking for my ancestry should search. For a white man and a black woman.

Chewing betel [makan sirih pinang], and when I am of marriageable. Usually a Dutchman asks for me. The Chinese Trader Figure 4 :. Chinese traders were important figures in the East ; Schmalkalden may have observed them first in Batavia, but they were already plentiful in Formosa, too.

Sucht iemand kaufmannschaft und kostbar teure Wahren,. Damit nunmehr erlaubt, in Unser land zu fahren,. Wir haben Seidenwahr und reines Porcelan. Macht Mars uns nicht beruhmbt, so hats die Kunst gethan. If someone is looking for commerce and valuable, expensive wares,. It is permissible to travel to our country. We have silken ware and fine porcelain. If Mars does not make us famous, the arts have done so. The Chinese Woman Figure 10 :. Here the poem reflects the fact that upper-class Chinese women were secluded at home where possible.

The author seems to approve of the custom. She carries an embroidery frame, which first draws his attention. Ich liebe kunst und zucht, driimb kann ich kiinstlich sticken ; Doch darff mich nimmermehr ein frembder mann anblicken, Ihr Frawen wolt ihr treu, und unbeflecket seyn, So sucht gelegenheit, und spent eiich mit mir ein.

I love art and fine manners, so I can embroider artfully ;.


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  8. But never may a strange man look at me,. Ye women, if you want to be loyal and unsullied,. Then look for an opportunity to be locked away with me. The Moor Figure 8 :. We offer good prices, Mouris [cotton fabrics] and silken wares, To anyone who travels to Coromandel, Suratte and Persia, Otherwise nature colored us brown and black But at the same time we are heirs to bravery. The Formosan Figure 12 :. Although the text offers a fair amount of information about Formosan natives, it was their hunting practices, their ability to run swiftly and for a long distance, and their metal bracelets that made a noise when they ran to startle the prey?

    Wir lauffen in die Wett und traben gantze tagen Nach unser klincker klangh, die wir in Handen tragen, Wir leben von der Jagt, es jagt, wer jagen kann, Und wenn wir schieBen fehl, so gehen die Hunde dran. We run as in a race and trot for whole days. To the sound of our ringing bracelets that we hold in our hands,. We live from the hunt, anyone who can, hunts,. And if we shoot amiss, the dogs go after [the prey].

    As a study of travel reports from India concludes, the final product of travel accounts from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was often a "complex amalgam", melding first-hand experiences with any number of exotic themes and often stereotypical descriptive material, all somehow combined. Although we can be grateful to Joost for drawing attention to this neglected treasure and for solving some of the puzzles about its origins, the need for a critical edition of the text and a more careful evaluation of its other puzzles remains.

    Much of what has been said here has to be seen as provisional. A more careful examination of the manuscript and its predecessors , the style, the handwriting and even the paper, as well as a comparison with other contemporary accounts, may bring additional information to light.

    Especially the previously neglected appendix, whether from Schmalkalden or another author, deserves attention. Furthermore, in view of the present interest in types and stereotypes and their role in building up an image of Asia in Western perceptions, a study of aspects of the visual presentation of its peoples would be most welcome. Schmalkalden's visions of Asia, although not published until the twentieth century, would be an important contribution to such a study.

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    Tubingen : Max Niemeyer, The Hague : Nijhoff, []. Rio de Janeiro : Editora Index, , 2 vols. Blumenbach, J. Lit , 4 vols. Boxer, C. Der "Indianer" im Kloster St. Gallen Georg Franz Millier , ein Weltreisender des Jahrhunderts [The "Indian" in the monastery of St. Gallen, Georg Franz Miiller, a world traveler of the 17th century]. Aus den Handschriften Nr. Itinerario : Voyage ofte Schipvaert van Jan Huygen van Linschoten naer Oost ofte Portugaels Indien inhoudende een corte beschryvinghe der selver landen ende Zee-custen Amsterdam : Cornelis Claesz, Terwiel, eds. Kraatz, E. Lach, Donald F.

    Berlin : Duncker und Humblot, various years. Naber, S. Mainz : Philipp von Zabern, Essays 3 , De vijf gesantschapsreizen van Rijklofvan Goens naar het hofvan Mataram, The Hague : Martinus Nijhoff, Opladen : Leske und Budrich, , Figure 1. I, 11 : Figure 2. Caspar Schmalkalden' s Images of Asia.

    Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Bv permission. Caspar Schmalkalden's Images of Asia. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure Figure 1 2. I thank Prof. Michel for making this, and other material, available to me. Dutch travel literature flourished between and continued to play an important role in Dutch publishing for another century, often appearing in languages other than Dutch.

    But the India Companies kept a wary eye on disclosure of negative information or such that might aid their rivals in trade Boxer : Van Gelder follows the published and unpublished travels of forty-seven former employees of the VOC from German-speaking regions in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, providing an excellent survey of early German travel literature on the East Indies. This valuable work recently appeared in German translation. An introduction to German travel literature of the East Indies is E.

    For example, that of Albrecht Schmidlapp, who witnessed the destruction of Jacatra in. Jahrhundert Jakarta : Cipta Loka Caraka, , Der " Indianer " im Kloster St. Gallen Georg Franz Miiller , ein Weltreisender des The original manuscript is dated In addition to the publications of and mentioned above, this first part has appeared as a facsimile edition with translations of the text into English and Portuguese.

    Although the Dutch settlement at the Cape was only founded in , before then ships often stopped to obtain water and, from the local people called "Hottentots", provisions. Schmalkalden's illustration appropriately shows only two tents at the foot of the prominent Table Mountain r; , Tubingen : Max Niemeyer, [facsimile of edition] , Merklein places this mission, which had to do with the pepper trade, in , and also ascribes it to Deutecom.

    Dutecom or Deutecom was in Aceh in The Hague : Nijhoff, [] , 61 and note. Did Schmalkalden simply follow Merklein here? For another account of an elephant fight, see Lombard , Staged fights with elephants, tigers, or other wild animals also took place at other courts in the Archipelago.

    Nevertheless, the author assumes that Schmalkalden really did visit Japan. More probably an Ambonese, with his sword and shield and flowing headbands.

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    The Ambonese and their warlike cakalele dance were a much-loved theme in depictions of the Indies. For example, Andersen includes a depiction of a kora-kora ship and, on land four dancers in martial garb perform, while two musicians accompany them. Andersen [] : Schmalkalden' s sketch is however more lively and realistic.

    Some of this is in the Brazil section. In contrast, Vogel's travel recollections, Johann Wilhelm Vogel, Ost-Indianische Reise-Beschreibung Altenburg : Richters, 1 , are filled with prayers of thanksgiving for survival in perils at sea, references to homesickness and bouts of illness, his frustration at not being able to attend a proper Lutheran church, and so on. His original manuscript is also in the Gotha collection.

    Wolfgang Michel, "Ein friihes deutsch-japanisches Glossar aus dem Jahrhundert", Kairos 24 , discusses how Schmalkalden expanded on existing vocabularies from Portuguese missionaries. Also, the author says that Brazil-wood, a major export of Brazil at the time, "is brought here", that is, to Europe, and, although it is well-known, he adds a picture of a leafy branch to show how the tree grows : As mentioned below, he also relates in the text : that he presented a stuffed bird of paradise to the Duke after his return to Gotha and adds a drawing of the carcass.

    A member of the first voyage with da Gama in produced a list of Malayalam words from Calicut. The tradition continued with missionaries and others during the following decades, and, like Schmalkalden, these authors included samples of writing systems. See Donald F. Lach, Asia in the Making of Europe, Vol. Although foreign employees of the India Companies are often described as uneducated riff-raff or worse, van Gelder has shown that at least those who wrote travel accounts often came from good families and had, like Schmalkalden, learned a trade or profession.

    Joost, who gives biographical details, presumed that the author lived on wealth amassed in the Indies , , but in fact he took on a regular job in the Duke's chancellery, perhaps with the help of his father-in-law. The Duke's sons were not necessarily the authors of these reports — their tutors took over that tedious job. These travel diaries might also include drawings of important products and machines. Similarly, Schmalkalden devotes two illustrations to sugar mills in Brazil, another to a manioc press. An alternative explanation is offered by Joost : The text and illustrations served to refresh the memory of someone recounting to friends or other audiences his adventures in exotic lands.

    The problem with this explanation is that the personal "adventures" are dwarfed by the didactic material. Blumenbach refers to the manuscript in J. Like other Enlightenment figures, he repeatedly insisted that all shared equal intellectual capacities. A theorist who never left Europe, he was an avid collector of travel literature, which provided him, as it did other eighteenth-century thinkers, with ideas about "wild men" and their customs. He even kept a meticulous catalogue of travel books from the early Portuguese accounts to those of Raffles and Crawfurd in the nineteenth century, organized by author, year and geographic area.

    See J. For more about Blumenbach, see K. See , , and, with more information on Schmalkalden's life, , , The catalog indicates that it is a draft Concept. A number of corrections appear in the text. As far as I know, Roelof van Gelder was the "discoverer" of these two additional manuscripts. By the mid- 17th century a number of monumental works on the natural features of Brazil had appeared and Schmalkalden' s illustrations clearly drew on the harbor views, flora and fauna they depicted. Of this text, pages r to r, one page has been rewritten in yet another hand, perhaps because something happened to the original.

    The margins of these pages are drawn with double lines, which is not the case elsewhere in the manuscript. The first three entries in the East Asia section deal with Teneriffa, the island St. In some passages it is questionable whether the scribe understood what he was writing. For example, in Engelbert Kaempfer's manuscript about modern Japan five different handwritings appear, from Kaempfer, his nephew and at least three other persons. The nephew was responsible for much of the final copy.

    The appendix is divided by subject, with the parts having Roman numerals. The Hague : Nijhoff, [] , , is the strict control of the Dutch ships and their personnel, especially on arrival and departure. Michel , , also finds close parallels to other accounts of Japan, but none as striking as that between Schmalkalden and Vogel. Among other possibilities, Schmalkalden could have read about Koxinga in the German translation of Caron's work, published in Nurnberg.

    The event, a bitter loss for the VOC, was certainly widely known in Europe.

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    Only in this edition does the author reveal what aroused his interest in the Indies. Vogel's account is much more personal, more of a travel diary than Schmalkalden's. He appends general information about Asian countries only at the end of the book. Jahrhundert", Kairos Fukuoka 24 , See De vijf gesantschapsreizen van Rijklof van Goens naar het hof van Mataram, The Hague : Martinus Nijhoff, , This version is in turn reprinted from "Reijsbeschrijving van den weg uijt Samarangh nae de konincklijke hoofdplaets Mataram", reprinted in Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde IV , ; the original manuscript dated has been lost.

    Gotha Ms. Donald F.